Department of accelerators

Isochronous cyclotron U-120M


The isochronous cyclotron U-120M operated at the Department of Accelerators was originally designed as an accelerator of light positive ions (A/Z = 1–2.8) with the maximum energy up to tens of MeV (K = 40). Since the early 1990s, the cyclotron has undergone major upgrade in terms of acceleration of negative ions H, D in order to increase external beam intensities. An extensive modernization and replacement of almost all flooded cyclotron subsystems was realized after floods in 2002.


The isochronous cyclotron U-120M


The cyclotron is routinely operated in positive and negative modes. Positive ions (H+, D+, 3He+2, 4He+2) are extracted from the cyclotron by means of three sections electrostatic deflection system with a magnetic kicker. Negative ions H, D are extracted by a stripping method using a thin carbon foil.


Parameters of accelerated and extracted beams are as follows:


Ions Energy [MeV] Max. current [μA]
H+ Internal beam
1 - 37 > 200
H+ External beam
6 - 25 5
H/H+ External beam
6 - 37 50 - 30
D+ Internal beam
2 - 20 > 80
D+ External beam
12 - 20 5
D-/D+ External beam
11 - 20 35 - 20
3He+2 Internal beam
3 - 55 20
3He+2 External beam
18 - 52 2
4He+2 (α) Internal beam
4 - 40 40
4He+2 (α) External beam
24 - 38 5
Note: Energy range of internal beams is for the probe radii from 20–50 cm.


The cyclotron is equipped with a beam line system for the transport of the accelerated and extracted ions to the experimental and target facilities. This system includes also short beam line for the ions extracted from negative regimes. As a research facility, the cyclotron serves for experiments in nuclear astrophysics (indirect metods), enables the detailed study of nuclear reactions and it is a data source for development of new international experimental facilities. Together with the unique target stations, the cyclotron is a powerful generator of fast neutron fluxes. Due to wide range of energies and variety of accelarated particles the cyclotron is effective tool for nuclear data measurements and production of radionuclides for research.

Moreover, accelerated ion beams can be adapted for other applications like irradiations of various samples and materials under vacuum or on the air after beam extraction through vacuum window (i.e. irradiation of biological samples, radiation rezistence tests of semicontrolled devices etc.).
The main research activities are focused on simulations of beam dynamic parameters during accelaration and extraction process and on the development and design of target systems for various type of irradiations and experiments.




Microtron MT25

The microtron is a cyclic accelerator of relativistic electron with a possibility of conversion primary electron beam to secondary photon beam and neutrons.



Basic parameters:


Before modernization After modernization
Maximum energy 25 MeV 25 MeV
Energy range 6 - 25 MeV 6 - 25 MeV
Electron current 10 μA 25 μA
High frequency source
Tunable magnetron 2 790 ± 50 MHz 2 796 ± 5 MHz
Peak power 2 MW 3 MW
Pulse lenght 3 μs 3 μs
Repetition rate
400 s−1 max. 425 s−1
Resonator freq.
2 784 MHz 2 796 MHz
Power supply freq. 400 Hz 50 Hz